B.S Habib Torfi – Exosomes in Regenerative Medicine
BASIC SCIENCE IN REGENERATIVE MEDICINE PANEL
GLOBAL REGENERATIVE CONGRESS 6-8 SEPTEMBER 2019
Regenerative medicine describes a group of therapies focused on restoring the native functionality of an afflicted tissue as opposed to managing symptoms of a disorder. Stem cells and other cell-based therapies have attracted significant attention in this space due to their ability to not only treat patient symptoms but to improve functionality by rejuvenating host tissues prone to degeneration and injury. Stem cells are so named because they are capable of replicating while maintaining an undifferentiated state and, given the proper stimulus, are capable of forming various types of specialized tissues in vitro. This knowledge has fueled speculation that the regenerative therapeutic effects of transplanted cells in vivo can be attributed to cell differentiation upon engraftment. However, recent studies exploring Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) mechanisms of action suggest that this is not the case.
Perhaps surprisingly, MSCs tend to retain their undifferentiated state once implanted and function mostly through signaling, stimulating resident stem and progenitor cells via trophic and immunomodulatory pathways. It is the action of the stimulated host cells that is truly responsible for the regenerative effects associated with using MSCs, suggesting that the bioactive factors secreted by MSCs in vivo warrant more attention. Exosomes and other Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) have been identified as the primary therapeutic agents present in the secretions of MSCs. MSC-derived EVs have been shown to elicit similar regenerative effects compared to MSC treatments for a variety of applications in small animal models, suggesting that EV treatments have the potential to rival or replace cellular therapies for regenerative applications.
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