Fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) structures and functional tissues directly in live animals would enable minimally invasive surgical techniques for organ repair or reconstruction. Here, we show that 3D cell-laden photosensitive polymer hydrogels can be bioprinted across and within tissues of live mice, using bio-orthogonal two-photon cycloaddition and crosslinking of the polymers at wavelengths longer than 850 nm. Such intravital 3D bioprinting—which does not create by-products and takes advantage of commonly available multiphoton microscopes for the accurate positioning and orientation of the bioprinted structures into specific anatomical sites—enables the fabrication of complex structures inside tissues of live mice, including the dermis, skeletal muscle and brain. We also show that intravital 3D bioprinting of donor-muscle-derived stem cells under the epimysium of hindlimb muscle in mice leads to the de novo formation of myofibres in the mice. Intravital 3D bioprinting could serve as an in vivo alternative to conventional bioprinting.
Source: Urciuolo, A., Poli, I., Brandolino, L. et al. Intravital three-dimensional bioprinting. Nat Biomed Eng (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-020-0568-z
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